Schneider's marmoset

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Schneider's marmoset
Casal de Sagui-de-schneider Paranaíta 2021.jpg
Female (a) and male (b) in Paranaíta, Brazil
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Callitrichidae
Genus: Mico
Species:
M. schneideri
Binomial name
Mico schneideri
Costa-Araújo et al. 2021
Mico schneideri and M. emiliae range map.webp
Geographical distribution of Schneider's marmoset (silver) and Emilia's marmoset (dark grey)

Schneider's marmoset (Mico schneideri) is a species of marmoset of the genus Mico in the family Callitrichidae. Endemic to Brazil, it is found in the Amazon rainforest of Mato Grosso state. It is found on the interfluve between the Juruena and Teles Pires rivers. Schneider's marmoset is found in primary and secondary terra firma rainforests and in the transition zone to the Cerrado.

Previously misidentified as Emilia's marmoset (Mico emiliae), a morphological and phylogenetic study in 2021 showed the species is distinct and it was formally described as a new species. Schneider's marmoset has a lead-coloured saddle and rump with cream-silver underparts. There is grey fur on the back of its neck and on top of its head. Its hands are light orange, its feet are orange, and its tail is black.

Schneider's marmoset is found in the "arc of deforestation", a 2,500 km stretch of the Amazon rainforest which is under greatest pressure from deforestation, mostly due to agricultural encroachment.

Taxonomy and phylogeny

Described by Costa-Araújo et al. in 2021, Mico schneideri (Schneider's marmoset) was the third species split from Mico emiliae (Emilia's marmoset);[1] M. marcai (Marca's marmoset) and M. rondoni (Rondon's marmoset) were separated from the taxon in 1993 and 2010, respectively.[2][3] M. schneideri was named in honour of Horácio Schneider [pt], a Brazilian biologist who was "a pioneer, and a major contributor to the phylogenetic studies of New World primates".[1] The holotype is an adult female collected from a forest fragment in Paranaíta city in 2016. The description is partly based on eight specimens collected in 1995 from the Juruena–Teles Pires interfluve which were misidentified as M. emiliae and were kept in the Emílio Goeldi Museum in Belém. These specimens, together with other specimens collected in the same area between 2015 and 2018, were designated as the paratypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed four lineages within Mico, and although M. schneideri had been labelled as M. emiliae for many years it is actually more closely related to M. melanurus (the black-tailed marmoset) and M. marcai (Marca's marmoset), its sister taxon.[1]

Physical description

Schneider's marmoset has a lead-coloured back and cream-silver underparts with light orange hues towards its arms and legs. It has short white hairs on its face and no ear tufts. On the back of its neck (mantle) and the top of its head (crown) it has grey fur. [1] Like other marmosets, it has enlarged incisor teeth, which are the same size as the canine teeth, which are used for gouging holes in trees to extract exudates. Its reduced body size when compared to other New World monkeys has necessitated the loss of one set of molars, giving the dental formula of 2.1.3.22.1.3.2 × 2 = 32, meaning that on each side of the mouth there are two upper (maxillary) and lower (mandibular) incisors, one upper and lower canine tooth, three upper and lower premolars, and two upper and lower molars, giving a total of 32 permanent teeth.[4][5] It has dark brown eyes. The tail is black, with some orange hairs on the underside of the base of the tail. The upper arms are gray to cream-colored, the tops of the hands are blackish-gold, while those of the feet are orange-gold. The hairless palms are gray to white, while the feet are unpigmented. The fingers and toes, with the exception of the big toe, which has a flat nail, have curved claws (tegulae).[1] Although body measurements were not given in the scientific description, callitrichids have an average head-body length of 14–18 cm with a 25–32 cm tail and weigh 300–450 g.[6]

Distribution and habitat

Schneider's marmoset is found in primary and secondary terra firma rainforests and in the transition zone to the Cerrado. It is found in the northern Mato Grosso state in Brazil, on the interfluve between the Juruena and Teles Pires rivers, which limit its range to the west and east, respectively. Its distribution north is restricted by the confluence of the two rivers while its southerly distribution extends into their headwaters but does not reach the city of Lucas do Rio Verde. The southern limit of its range coincides with the start of the Cerrado biome where the forest gives way to savanna. Since it has not been found in Amazonian white-sand savanna vegetation, it is not expected to be found in the Cerrado.[1]

Conservation

Schneider's marmoset is found in the "arc of deforestation", a 2,500 km long strip on the southern periphery of the Amazon rainforest that is under greatest threat from deforestation and conversion to agricultural and pastoral environments.[1] This area accounts for almost one-third of global deforestation[7] and has experienced half of the global land use change over the past 30 years.[8] It is thought that the current rates of deforestation in the area will lead to a tipping point of no return, replacing the forests with a non-forest ecosystem.[9] There are 52 primate species found in the "arc of deforestation", 42 of which are already threatened with extinction.[1]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Costa-Araújo, Rodrigo; Silva, José S.; Boubli, Jean P.; Rossi, Rogério V.; Canale, Gustavo R.; Melo, Fabiano R.; Bertuol, Fabrício; Silva, Felipe E.; Silva, Diego A.; Nash, Stephen D.; Sampaio, Iracilda; Farias, Izeni P.; Hrbek, Tomas (2021). "An integrative analysis uncovers a new, pseudo-cryptic species of Amazonian marmoset (Primates: Callitrichidae: Mico) from the arc of deforestation". Scientific Reports. 11 (1): 15665. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-93943-w. PMC 8328995. PMID 34341361.
  2. Alperin, R. (1993). "Callithrix argentata (Linnaeus, 1771): consideracoes taxonomicas e descricao de subespecie nova" [Callithrix argentata (Linnaeus, 1771): taxonomic considerations and description of a new subspecies]. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi Serie Zoologia (in português). 9 (2): 317–328.
  3. Ferrari, S. F.; Sena, L.; Schneider, M. P.; Silva Jr., J. S. (2010). "Rondon's marmoset, Mico rondoni sp. n., from Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia". International Journal of Primatology. 31 (5): 693–714. doi:10.1007/s10764-010-9422-6. S2CID 1375958.
  4. Rowe, N. (1996). The pictorial guide to the living primates. p. 59. ISBN 0-9648825-0-7.
  5. Fleagle, John G. (2013). "New World anthropoids". Primate adaptation and evolution (3rd ed.). Academic Press. pp. 89–118. ISBN 978-0-12-378632-6.
  6. Casteleyn, Christophe; Bakker, Jaco (2019). "The anatomy of the common marmoset". In Marini, Robert; Wachtman, Lynn; Tardif, Suzette; Mansfield, Keith; Fox, James (eds.). The common marmoset in captivity and biomedical research. pp. 17–41. ISBN 9780128118290.
  7. Carrero, Gabriel Cardoso; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Do Valle, Denis Ribeiro; De Souza Alves, Cristiano (2020). "Deforestation trajectories on a development frontier in the Brazilian Amazon: 35 years of settlement colonization, policy and economic shifts, and land accumulation". Environmental Management. 66 (6): 966–984. doi:10.1007/s00267-020-01354-w. PMC 7493702. PMID 32936327.
  8. "New marmoset species discovered in Brazilian Amazon" (Press release). Wildlife Conservation Society. 12 August 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  9. Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Nobre, Carlos (2018). "Amazon tipping point". Science Advances. 4 (2): eaat2340. Bibcode:2018SciA....4.2340L. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aat2340. PMC 5821491. PMID 29492460.

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