The Nanakshahi (Punjabi: ਨਾਨਕਸ਼ਾਹੀ, nānakashāhī, Shahmukhi Punjabi:نانک شاہی) calendar is a tropical solar calendar that is used in Sikhism and is based on the 'Barah Maha' (Punjabi: ਬਾਰਹ ਮਾਹਾ). Barah Maha was composed by the Sikh Gurus and translates as the "Twelve Months". It is a poem reflecting the changes in nature which are conveyed in the twelve-month cycle of the Year. The year begins with the month of Chet, with 1 Chet corresponding to 14 March. The first year of the Nanakshahi Calendar starts in 1469 CE: the year of the birth of Guru Nanak Dev.
Sikhs have traditionally recognised two eras and luni-solar calendars: the Nanakshahi and Khalsa. Traditionally, both these calendars closely followed the Bikrami calendar with the Nanakshahi year beginning on Katak Pooranmashi (full moon) and the Khalsa year commencing with Vaisakhi. The methods for calculating the beginning of the Khalsa era were based on the Bikrami calendar. The year length was also the same as the Bikrami solar year. According to Steel (2000), (since the calendar was based on the Bikrami), the calendar has twelve lunar months that are determined by the lunar phase, but thirteen months in leap years which occur every 2–3 years in the Bikrami calendar to sync the lunar calendar with its solar counterpart. Kay (2011) abbreviates the Khalsa Era as KE.
References to the Nanakshahi Era have been made in historic documents. Banda Singh Bahadur adopted the Nanakshahi calendar in 1710 C.E. after his victory in Sirhind (12 May 1710 C.E.) according to which the year 1710 C.E. became Nanakshahi 241. However, Singh (2008) states the date of the victory as 14 May 1710 CE. According to Dilgeer (1997), Banda "continued adopting the months and the days of the months according to the Bikrami calendar". Banda Singh Bahadur also minted new coins also called Nanakshahi. Herrli (1993) states that "Banda is supposed to have dated his coins according to his new calendar. Although Banda may have proclaimed this era, it cannot be traced in contemporary documents and does not seem to have been actually used for dating".According to The Panjab Past and Present (1993), it is Gian Singh who "is the first to use Nanak Shahi Samvats along with those of Bikrami Samvats" in the Twarikh Guru Khalsa. According to Singha (1996), Gian Singh was a Punjabi author born in 1822. Gian Singh wrote the Twarikh Guru Khalsa in 1891.
The revised Nanakshahi calendar was designed by Pal Singh Purewal to replace the Bikrami calendar. The epoch of this calendar is the birth of the first Sikh Guru, Nanak Dev in 1469 and the Nanakshahi year commences on 1 Chet. New Year's Day falls annually on what is 14 March in the Gregorian Western calendar. The start of each month is fixed. According to Kapel (2006), the solar accuracy of the Nanakshahi calendar is linked to the Gregorian civil calendar. This is because the Nanaskhahi calendar uses the tropical year instead of using the sidereal year which is used in the Bikrami calendar or the old Nanakshahi and Khalsa calendars.
The amended Nanakshahi calendar was adopted in 1998 but implemented in 2003 by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events. The calendar was implemented during the SGPC presidency of Sikh scholar Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar at Takhat Sri Damdama Sahib in the presence of Sikh leadership. Nanakshahi Calendar recognizes the adoption event, of 1999 CE, in the Sikh history when SGPC released the first calendar with permanently fixed dates in the Tropical Calendar. Therefore, the calculations of this calendar do not regress back from 1999 CE into the Bikrami era, and accurately fixes for all time in the future.
Features of the Nanakshahi calendar (2003)
- Uses the accurate Tropical year (365 Days, 5 Hours, 48 Minutes, 45 Seconds) rather than the Sidereal year
- Called Nanakshahi after Guru Nanak (Founder of Sikhism)
- Year 1 is the Year of Guru Nanak's Birth (1469 CE). As an example, October 19, 2021 CE is Nanakshahi 553.
- Is Based on Gurbani – Month Names are taken from Guru Granth Sahib
- Contains 5 Months of 31 days followed by 7 Months of 30 days
- Leap year every 4 Years in which the last month (Phagun) has an extra day
- Approved by Akal Takht in 2003
|1||Chet||ਚੇਤ||31||14 March – 13 April||Basant (Spring)|
|2||Vaisakh||ਵੈਸਾਖ||31||14 April – 14 May||Basant (Spring)|
|3||Jeth||ਜੇਠ||31||15 May – 14 June||Garikham (Summer)|
|4||Harh||ਹਾੜ||31||15 June – 15 July||Garisham (Summer)|
|5||Sawan||ਸਾਵਣ||31||16 July – 15 August||Rut Baras (Rainy season)|
|6||Bhadon||ਭਾਦੋਂ||30||16 August – 14 September||Rut Baras (Rainy season)|
|7||Assu||ਅੱਸੂ||30||15 September – 14 October||Sard (Autumn)|
|8||Katak||ਕੱਤਕ||30||15 October – 13 November||Sard (Autumn)|
|9||Maghar||ਮੱਘਰ||30||14 November – 13 December||Sisiar (Winter)|
|10||Poh||ਪੋਹ||30||14 December – 12 January||Sisiar (Winter)|
|11||Magh||ਮਾਘ||30||13 January – 11 February||Himkar (late Winter/early Spring)|
|12||Phagun||ਫੱਗਣ||30/31||12 February – 13 March||Himkar (late Winter/early Spring)|
In 2010, the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee ("SGPC") modified the calendar so that the dates for the start of the months are movable so that they coincide with the Bikrami calendar and changed the dates for various Sikh festivals so they are based upon the lunar phase. This has created controversy with some bodies adopting the original 2003 version, also called the "Mool Nanakshahi Calendar" and others, the 2010 version. By 2014, the SGPC had scrapped the original Nanakshahi calendar from 2003 and reverted to the Bikrami calendar entirely, however it was still published under the name of Nanakshahi. The Sikh bodies termed it a step taken under pressure from the RSS and Shiromani Akali Dal. There is also some controversy about the acceptance of the calendar altogether among certain sectors of the Sikh world.
SGPC president, Gobind Singh Longowal, on 13 March 2018 urged all Sikhs to follow the current (2010) Nanakshahi calendar. The previous SGPC President before Longowal, Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar, tried to appeal the Akal Takht to celebrate the birthday of Guru Gobind Singh on 23 Poh (5 January) as per the original Nanakshahi calendar, but the appeal was denied. The PSGPC and a majority of the other gurdwara managements across the world are opposing the modified version of the calendar citing that the SGPC reverted to the Bikrami calendar. They argue that in the Bikrami calendar, dates of many gurpurbs coincide, thereby creating confusion among the Sikh Panth.
According to Ahaluwalia (2003), the Nanakshahi calendar goes against the use of lunar Bikrami dates by the Gurus themselves and is contradictory. It begins with the year of birth of Guru Nanak Dev, but the first date, 1 Chet, is when Guru Har Rai was installed the seventh Guru. However, the first date of the Nanakshahi calendar (1 Chet) is based upon the Barah Maha of the Guru Granth Sahib, which has Chet as the first month. Pal Singh Purewal, as reported in the Edmonton Journal (March 2018) has stated that his aims in formulating the Nanakshahi calendar were, "first and foremost, it should respect sacred holy scriptures. Second, it should discard the lunar calendar and use only a solar one. Third, all the dates should be fixed and not vary from year to year." In reality however, state Haar and Kalsi (2009), the introduction of the Nanakshahi calendar has resulted in many festivals being "celebrated on two dates depending on the choice of the management of the local gurdwaras."
Months (2010 version)
The start date of the months in the current Nanakshahi calendar are not fixed.
|1||Chet||ਚੇਤ||March – April||Basant (Spring)|
|2||Vaisakh||ਵੈਸਾਖ||April – May||Basant (Spring)|
|3||Jeth||ਜੇਠ||May – June||Garikham (Summer)|
|4||Harh||ਹਾੜ||June – July||Garisham (Summer)|
|5||Sawan||ਸਾਵਣ||July – August||Rut Baras (Rainy season)|
|6||Bhadon||ਭਾਦੋਂ||August – September||Rut Baras (Rainy season)|
|7||Assu||ਅੱਸੂ||September – October||Sard (Autumn)|
|8||Katak||ਕੱਤਕ||October – November||Sard (Autumn)|
|9||Maghar||ਮੱਘਰ||November – December||Sisiar (Winter)|
|10||Poh||ਪੋਹ||December – January||Sisiar (Winter)|
|11||Magh||ਮਾਘ||January – February||Himkar (late Winter/early Spring)|
|12||Phagun||ਫੱਗਣ||February – March||Himkar (late Winter/early Spring)|
Festivals and events (2003 version)
Dates of observance of festivals as determined by reference to the 2003 version.
|Festivals and events (Original Nanakshahi calendar)||Nanakshahi date||Gregorian date|
|Guru Har Rai becomes the 7th Guru
Nanakshahi New Year Commences
|1 Chet||14 Mar|
|Guru Hargobind merges back to the Creator||6 Chet||19 Mar|
|The ordination of the Khalsa
Birth of Guru Nanak (Vaisakhi Date)
|1 Vaisakh||14 Apr|
|Guru Angad merges back to the Creator
Guru Amar Das becomes the 3rd Guru
Guru Harkrishan merges back to the Creator
Guru Tegh Bahadur becomes the 9th Guru
|3 Vaisakh||16 Apr|
|Birth of Guru Angad, the 2nd Guru
Birth of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the 9th Guru
|5 Vaisakh||18 Apr|
|Birth of Guru Arjan, the 5th Guru||19 Vaisakh||2 May|
|Birth of Guru Amar Das, the 3rd Guru||9 Jeth||23 May|
|Guru Hargobind becomes the 6th Guru||28 Jeth||11 Jun|
|Guru Arjan, the 5th Guru, is martyred||2 Harh||16 Jun|
|Foundation Day of the Akaal Takht||18 Harh||16 Jun|
|Birth of Guru Hargobind, the 6th Guru||21 Harh||5 Jul|
|Miri-Piri is established by Guru Hargobind||6 Sawan||21 Jul|
|Birth of Guru Harkrishan, the 8th Guru||8 Sawan||23 Jul|
|The writing of the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Scripture, is completed||15 Bhadon||30 Aug|
|Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Scripture, is installed at the Golden Temple for the first time||17 Bhadon||1 Sep|
|Guru Amar Das merges back to the Creator
Guru Ram Das becomes the 4th Guru
Guru Ram Das merges back to the Creator
Guru Arjan becomes the 5th Guru
|2 Assu||16 Sep|
|Guru Angad becomes the 2nd Guru||4 Assu||18 Sep|
|Guru Nanak merges back to the Creator||8 Assu||22 Sep|
|Birth of Guru Ram Das, the 4th Guru||25 Assu||9 Oct|
|Guru Har Rai merges back to the Creator
Guru Harkrishan becomes the 8th Guru
The Guru Granth Sahib is declared as the Guru for all times to come by Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th and the last human Guru
|6 Katak||20 Oct|
|Guru Gobind Singh merges back to the Creator||7 Katak||21 Oct|
|Guru Gobind Singh becomes the 10th Guru||11 Maghar||24 Nov|
|Guru Tegh Bahadur martyred in Delhi by Aurangzeb for defending the oppressed||11 Maghar||24 Nov|
|Ajit Singh, and Jujhar Singh, the two elder sons of Guru Gobind Singh, martyred in the battle of Chamkaur||8 Poh||21 Dec|
|Zorawar Singh, and Fateh Singh, the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh, executed in Sirhind||13 Poh||26 Dec|
|Birth of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Guru||23 Poh||5 Jan|
|Birth of Guru Har Rai, the 7th Guru||19 Magh||31 Jan|
Movable dates for Sikh Festivals in the 2003 and 2010 versions. (These change every year in line with the Lunar Phase)
|Year||Hola Mohalla||Bandi Chhor Divas||Birth of Guru Nanak Dev|
|2003||19 Mar||25 Oct||8 Nov|
|2004||7 Mar||12 Nov||26 Nov|
|2005||26 Mar||1 Nov||15 Nov|
|2006||15 Mar||21 Oct||5 Nov|
|2007||4 Mar||9 Nov||24 Nov|
|2008||22 Mar||28 Oct||13 Nov|
|2009||11 Mar||17 Oct||2 Nov|
|2010||1 Mar||5 Nov||21 Nov|
|2011||20 Mar||26 Oct||10 Nov|
|2012||9 Mar||13 Nov||28 Nov|
|2013||28 Mar||3 Nov||17 Nov|
|2014||17 Mar||23 Oct||6 Nov|
|2015||6 Mar||11 Nov||25 Nov|
|2016||24 Mar||30 Oct||14 Nov|
|2017||13 Mar||19 Oct||4 Nov|
|2018||2 Mar||7 Nov||23 Nov|
|2019||21 Mar||27 Oct||12 Nov|
|2020||10 Mar||14 Nov||30 Nov|
- W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press.
- Singh, Jagraj (2009). A complete guide to Sikhism. Unistar Books.
- J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann (2010) Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition [6 volumes]. ABC-Clio 
- Singh, Harbans (1998) The Encyclopaedia of Sikhism: S-Z. Publications Bureau 
- Proceedings – Punjab History Conference, Volume 27, Part 1 (1996) Punjabi University 
- Steel, Duncan (2000) v. Wiley
- Kay, Michael (2011) XSLT 2.0 and XPath 2.0 Programmer's Reference. John Wiley & Sons
- Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, A. T. Kerr (1995) Akal Takht Sahib. Sikh Educational Trust in collaboration with the Sikh University Centre, Denmark 
- Gandhi, Surjit Singh (1999) Sikhs in the Eighteenth Century: Their Struggle for Survival and Supremacy. Singh Bros 
- Singh, Patwant (2008) Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen
- Dilgeer, Harjinder Singh (1997) The Sikh Reference Book. Sikh Educational Trust for Sikh University Centre, Denmark 
- Dhillon, Harish (2013) First Raj of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Banda Singh Bahadur. Hay House 
- Herrli, Hans (1993) The Coins of the SikhsIndian Coin Societ
- The Panjab Past and Present, Volume 27, Issue 1. Department of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University 
- Siṅgha, Sukhadiāla (1996) Historical analysis of Giani Gian Singh's writings.UICS 
- The Panjab Past and Present, Volume 32 (2001) Department of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University
- Chilana, Rajwant Singh (2006) International Bibliography of Sikh Studies. Springer Science & Business Media 
- "What is the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar". allaboutsikhs.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
- Abstracts of Sikh Studies, Volume 5 (2003) Institute of Sikh Studies
- Kepel, Martin (2006) The Structure and Mathematics of the Principal Calendars of the Western World: Muslim, Gregorian, Jewish, and Other Systems. Edwin Mellen Press 
- Melton, J. Gordon (2011) Religious Celebrations: L-Z. ABC-Clio
- Louis E. Fenech, W. H. McLeod (2014) Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield 
- Knut A. Jacobsen (2008) South Asian Religions on Display: Religious Processions in South Asia and in the Diaspora. Routledge 
- Nesbitt, Eleanor (2016) Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press 
- Bodiwala, Community Contributor Suresh. "Sikh Religious Society Organizes Two -day Conference in Chicago to Implement Mool Nanakshahi Calendar". Naperville Sun (in English). Retrieved 29 March 2018.
- Abstracts of Sikh Studies, Volume 5 (2003) Institute of Sikh Studies
- "Nanakshahi Calendar at BBC". BBC. 29 July 2003. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
- Singh Purewal, Pal. "Gurbani And Nanakshahi Calendar" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- "Bara Maha – SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia". www.sikhiwiki.org (in English). sikhiwiki.org. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Parkash, Chander (14 March 2003). "Nanakshahi calendar out". www.tribuneindia.com. The Tribune. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Kohli, Surindar Singh (1992) A Conceptual Encyclopaedia of Guru Granth Sahib.Manohar Publishers & Distributors 
- Chicago Tribune (18 November 2017) Sikh Religious Society Organizes Two-day Conference in Chicago to Implement Mool Nanakshahi Calendar 
- Singh, Surjit( 6 March 2018) Hindustan Times) HT Explainer: Know about the controversial Nanakshahi calendar 
- Sikhs around world celebrate new year using Edmonton man's calendar (14 March 2018) Edmonton Journal by Juris Graney 
- Singh, Surjit (6 March 2018). "HT Explainer: Know about the controversial Nanakshahi calendar". Hindustan Times (in English). HT Media. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- Tribune India (14.03.2018) SGPC: Follow Nanakshahi calendar
- Singh, Surjit (13 November 2017). "Guru Gobind Singh's birth anniversary: Akal Takht rejects SGPC plea to extend parkash parv date". Hindustan Times (in English). HT Media. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- Āhalūwālīā, Jasabīra Siṅgha (2003) Liberating Sikhism from 'the Sikhs': Sikhisim's [sic] Potential for World Civilization. Unistar books 
- Singh Purewal, Pal. "Reply to Mr. Gurcharanjit Singh Lamba's criticism of Nanakshahi Calendar first implemented in 1999 CE" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- Haar, Kristen and Kalsi, Sewa Singh (2009) Sikhism. Infobase Publishing 
- Singh Purewal, Pal. "Gurpurbs (Fixed Dates)" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Singh Purewal, Pal. "Birth Date of Guru Nanak Sahib" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
- Singh Purewal, Pal. "Movable Dates of Gurpurbs (Change Every Year)" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Purewal.biz, the website of Mr. Pal Singh Purewal, the creator of the Nanakshahi Calendar, this site contains detailed articles about this calendar.
- Nanakshahi Calendar at BBC
Lua error in Module:Authority_control at line 1174: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).