Guangzhou

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Guangzhou
广州市
Canton
From top: Tianhe CBD, the Canton Tower and Chigang Pagoda, Haizhu Bridge, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, the Five Goat Statue and Zhenhai Tower in Yuexiu Park, and Sacred Heart Cathedral.
Nickname(s): 
City of Rams, Los Angeles of China. others
Location of Guangzhou in Guangdong
Location of Guangzhou in Guangdong
Guangzhou city map plan, China
Guangzhou city map plan, China
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CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceGuangdong
Government
 • TypeSub-provincial city
 • CPC Ctte SecretaryRen Xuefeng
 • MayorWen Guohui
Area
 • Sub-provincial city7,434.4 km2 (2,870 sq mi)
 • Urban
3,843.43 km2 (1,483.95 sq mi)
Elevation
21 m (68 ft)
Population
 (2017)[2]
 • Sub-provincial city14,498,400
 • Density2,000/km2 (5,100/sq mi)
 • Urban11,547,491
 • Metro
 (2010)[4]
25 million
Demonym(s)Cantonese
Time zoneUTC+8 (China standard time)
Postal code
510000
Area code(s)+ 86 (0)20
GDP(Nominal)[5]2017
 - Total¥2.15 trillion
$341 billion ($0.66 trillion, PPP)
 - Per capita¥153,134
$24,311 ($46,778, PPP)
 - GrowthIncrease 7%
Licence plate prefixesA
City FlowerBombax ceiba
City BirdChinese hwamei
LanguagesCantonese, Mandarin
Websiteenglish.gz.gov.cn
Guangzhou
GuangZhou.png
"Guangzhou" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese广州
Traditional Chinese廣州
JyutpingGwong2zau1
Hanyu PinyinAbout this soundGuǎngzhōu
PostalCanton
Kwangchow
Literal meaningBroad Prefecture
abbreviation
Chinese
JyutpingSeoi6
Hanyu PinyinSuì
Former names
Nanwucheng
Chinese
JyutpingNaam4mou5sing4
Hanyu PinyinNánwǔchéng
Literal meaningSouthern Wucheng
Panyu
Chinese番禺
JyutpingPun1jyu4
Hanyu PinyinPānyú
Guangfu
Provincial Capital
Traditional Chinese
省城
Simplified Chinese广
省城
JyutpingGwong2fu2
Saang2sing4
Hanyu PinyinGuǎngfǔ
Shěngchéng
Literal meaningBroad Prefecture
Provincial City
Xingwang
Traditional Chinese興王
Simplified Chinese兴王
JyutpingHing1wong4
Hanyu PinyinXìngwáng
Literal meaningHappy King
Informal names
City of Rams
City of the Five Rams
Chinese羊城
五羊城
JyutpingJoeng4sing4
Ng5joeng4sing4
Hanyu PinyinYángchéng
Wǔyángchéng
Literal meaningGoat/Sheep City
Five Goat/Sheep City
City of the Immortals
Chinese仙城
JyutpingSin1sing4
Hanyu PinyinXiānchéng
City of Flowers
Chinese花城
JyutpingFaa1sing4
Hanyu PinyinHuāchéng
Rice City
Chinese穗城
JyutpingSeoi6sing4
Hanyu PinyinSuìchéng
Literal meaningRice-ear City

Guangzhou (Cantonese pronunciation: [kʷɔ̌ːŋ.tsɐ́u], Chinese: 广州), also known as Canton,[6] is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.[7] Located in southern China on the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road[8] and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub today, as well as one of China's three largest cities.[9]

Guangzhou is situated at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China, an area that extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan, and Shenzhen, forming one of the largest urban agglomerations on the planet. Administratively, the city holds sub-provincial status;[10] and is one of China's five National Central Cities.[11] In 2015 the city's administrative area was estimated to have a population of 13,501,100.[12] Guangzhou is ranked as an Alpha- Global city.[13] In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of foreign residents and immigrants from Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and especially from Africa.[14] This has led to it being dubbed the "Capital of the Third World".[15][16] The migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40 percent of the city's total population in 2008. Together with Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen, Guangzhou has one of the most expensive real estate markets in China.[17]

Guangzhou has a comparatively recent history of two centuries related to its importance for foreign trade. Long the only Chinese port accessible to most foreign traders, the city fell to the British during the First Opium War. No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong (which is close by) and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major entrepôt. In modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for its annual Canton Fair, the oldest and largest trade fair in China. For the three consecutive years 2013–2015, Forbes ranked Guangzhou as the best commercial city on the Chinese mainland.[18]

Names

A Qing-era portrait of the Grotto of the Five Immortals, the Taoist temple around the five stones which gave Guangzhou its nickname "The City of Rams".

Guǎngzhōu is the pinyin romanisation of the Chinese name 廣州, which was simplified in mainland China to 广州 in the 1950s. The name of the city is taken from the ancient Guang Province (Guang Zhou), after it had become the prefecture's seat of government, which is how some other Chinese cities, including Hangzhou, Suzhou and Fuzhou got their names. The character or 广—which also appears in the names of the provinces Guangdong and Guangxi, together called the Liangguang—means "broad" or "expansive" and refers to the intention to dispense imperial grace broadly in the region with the founding of county of Guangxin in Han Dynasty.

Before acquiring its current name, the town was known as Panyu, a name still borne by one of Guangzhou's districts not far from the main city. The origin of the name is still uncertain, with 11 various explanations being offered,[19] including that it may have referred to two local mountains.[21][22] The city has also sometimes been known as Guangzhou Fu or Guangfu after its status as the capital of a prefecture. From this latter name, Guangzhou was known to medieval Persians such as Al-Masudi and Ibn Khordadbeh[23] as Khanfu (خانفو).[24] Under the Southern Han, the city was renamed Xingwang.[25][26]

The Chinese abbreviation for Guangzhou is (although the abbreviation on car license plates is ‘粤’), after its nickname "Rice City". The city has long borne the nickname City of Rams or City of the Five Rams from the five stones at the old Temple of the Five Immortals said to have been the sheep or goats ridden by the Taoist culture heroes credited with introducing rice cultivation to the area around the time of the city's foundation.[27] The former name "City of the Immortals" came from the same story. The more recent City of Flowers is usually taken as a simple reference to the area's greenery.

The English name "Canton" derived from Portuguese Cantão[28] or Cidade de Cantão,[29] a muddling of dialectical pronunciations of "Guangdong"[30][31] (e.g., Hakka Kóng-tûng). Although it originally and chiefly applied to the walled city, it was also used in English in reference to Guangdong generally.[32] It was adopted as the Postal Map Romanization of Guangzhou and remained in common use until the gradual adoption of pinyin. As an adjective, it is still used in describing the people, language, cuisine and culture of Guangzhou and the surrounding Liangguang region. The 19th-century name "Kwang-chow foo"[33] derived from Nanjing dialect of Mandarin and the town's status as a prefectural capital.

History

Prehistory

A settlement now known as Nanwucheng was present in the area by 1100 BC.[34][35] Some traditional Chinese histories placed Nanwucheng's founding during the reign of Ji Yan,[36][37] king of Zhou from 314–256 BC. It was said to have consisted of little more than a stockade of bamboo and mud.[36][37]

Nanyue

Panyu was established on the east bank of the Pearl River[33] in 214 BC to serve as a base for the Qin Empire's first failed invasion of the Baiyue lands in southern China. Legendary accounts claimed the soldiers at Panyu were so vigilant that they did not remove their armor for three years.Gray (1875), p. 3 Upon the fall of the Qin, General Zhao Tuo established his own kingdom of Nanyue and made Panyu its capital in 204 BC. It remained independent through the Chu-Han Contention, although Zhao negotiated recognition of his independence in exchange for his nominal submission to the Han in 196 BC.[38] Archaeological evidence shows that Panyu was an expansive commercial centre: in addition to items from central China, archaeologists have found remains originating from Southeast Asia, India, and even Africa.[39] Zhao Tuo was succeeded by Zhao Mo and then Zhao Yingqi. Upon Zhao Yingqi's death in 115 BC, his younger son Zhao Xing was named as his successor in violation of Chinese primogeniture. By 113 BC, his Chinese mother, the Empress Dowager Jiu () had prevailed upon him to submit Nanyue as a formal part of the Han Empire. The native prime minister Lü Jia () launched a coup, killing Han ambassadors along with the king, his mother, and their supporters.[40] A successful ambush then annihilated a Han force which had been sent to arrest him. The enraged Emperor Wu launched a massive river- and sea-borne invasion: six armies under Lu Bode and Yang Pu[41] took Panyu and annexed Nanyue by the end of 111 BC.[40]

Imperial China

Guangzhou (as ) on the 1136 Map of the Tracks of Yu
Lai Afong's photograph of a commercial street in Guangzhou c. 1880
Guangzhou ("Canton") and the surrounding islands of Henan ("Hanan"), Pazhou ("Whampoa"), Changzhou ("Dane's Island"), and Xiaoguwei ("French Island") during the First Opium War's Second Battle of Canton. The large East Indiamen of the Canton trade used the anchorage sheltered by these four islands, but the village and island of Huangpu for which it was named make up no part of present-day Guangzhou's Huangpu District.

Incorporated into the Han Empire, Panyu became a provincial capital. In AD 226, it became the seat of Guang Prefecture, which gave it its modern name. The Old Book of Tang described Guangzhou as an important port in southern China.[42] Direct routes connected the Middle East and China, as shown in records of a Chinese prisoner returning home from Iraq twelve years after his capture at Talas.[43] Relations were not always peaceful: Muslims sacked the city on 30 October 758[n 1][44][45][46][47] and were massacred by the Chinese rebel Huang Chao in 878, along with the city's Jews, Christians,[48][49][50] and Parsis.[51][52]

Amid the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms that followed the collapse of the Tang Dynasty, the Later Liang governor Liu Yan used his base at Panyu to establish a "Great Yue" or "Southern Han" empire, which lasted from 917 to 971. The region enjoyed considerable cultural and economic success in this period. From the 10th to 12th century, there are records that the large foreign communities were not exclusively male, but included "Persian women".[53][54][n 2] Guangzhou was visited by the Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta during his 14th-century journey around the world;[56] he detailed the process by which the Chinese constructed their large ships in the port's shipyards.[57]

Shortly after the Hongwu Emperor's declaration of the Ming Dynasty, he reversed his earlier support of foreign trade and imposed the first of a series of sea bans (haijin).[58] These banned private foreign trade upon penalty of death for the merchant and exile for his family and neighbors.[59] The Yuan-era maritime intendancies of Guangzhou, Quanzhou, and Ningbo were closed in 1384[60] and legal trade became limited to the tribute delegations sent to or by official representatives of foreign governments.[61]

Following the Portuguese conquest of Malacca, Rafael Perestrello travelled to Guangzhou as a passenger on a native junk in 1516.[62] His report induced Fernão Pires de Andrade to sail to the city with eight ships the next year,[62] but De Andrade's exploration[63] was understood as spying[64] and his brother Simão and others began attempting to monopolize trade,[65] enslaving Chinese women[66] and children,[n 3] engaging in piracy,[68] and fortifying the island of Tamão.[69][70] Rumors even circulated that Portuguese were eating the children.[71][67][n 4] The Guangzhou administration was charged with driving them off:[68] they bested the Portuguese at the Battle of Tunmen[73] and in Xicao Bay; held a diplomatic mission hostage in a failed attempt to pressure the restoration of the sultan of Malacca,[74] who had been accounted a Ming vassal;[75] and, after placing them in cangues and keeping them for most of a year, ultimately executed 23 by lingchi.[76][n 5] With the help of local pirates,[71] the "Folangji" then carried out smuggling at Macao, Lampacau, and St John's Island (now Shangchuan),[66] until Leonel de Sousa legalized their trade with bribes to Admiral Wang Bo () and the 1554 Luso-Chinese Accord. The Portuguese undertook not to raise fortifications and to pay customs dues;Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". three years later, after providing the Chinese with assistance suppressing their former pirate allies,Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". the Portuguese were permitted to warehouse their goods at Macau instead of Guangzhou itself.[79]

After the fall of Fuzhou in October 1646, the Longwu Emperor's brother Zhu Yuyue fled by sea to Guangzhou. On 11 December, he declared himself the Shaowu Emperor, borrowing his imperial regalia from local theatre troupes.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". He led a successful offense against his cousin Zhu Youlang but was deposed and executed on 20 January 1647 when the Ming turncoat Li Chengdong (Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".) sacked the city on behalf of the Qing.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".[n 6]

The Qing became somewhat more open to foreign trade after gaining control of Taiwan in 1683.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". The Portuguese from Macau and Spaniards from Manila returned, as did private Muslim, Armenian, and English traders.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". From 1699 to 1714, the French and British East India Companies sent a ship or two each year;Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". the Austrian Ostend General India Co. arrived in 1717,Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". the Dutch East India Co. in 1729,[80] the Danish Asiatic Co. in 1731,[n 7] and the Swedish East India Co. the next year.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". These were joined by the occasional Prussian or Trieste Company vessel. The first independent American ship arrived in 1784 and the first colonial Australian one in 1788.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". By that time, Guangzhou was one of the world's great ports, organised under the Canton System.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". The main exports were tea and porcelain.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". As a meeting place of merchants from all over the world, Guangzhou became a major contributor to the rise of the modern global economy.[82]

In the 19th century, most of the city's buildings were still only one or two storeys. The major structures were the Plain Minaret of the Huaisheng Mosque, the Flower Pagoda of the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees, and the guard tower known as the 5-Storey Pagoda. The northern hills, since urbanized, were bare and covered with traditional graves. The brick city walls were about Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". in circumference, Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". high, and Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". wide. Its eight main gates and two water gates all held guards during the day and were closed at night. The wall rose to incorporate a hill on its northern side and was surrounded on the other three by a moat which, along with the canals, functioned as the city's sewer, emptied daily by the river's tides. A partition wall with four gates divided the northern "old town" from the southern "new town" closer to the river; the suburb of Xiguan ("West Gate") stretched beyond and the boats of fishers, traders, and Tanka ("boat people") almost entirely concealed the riverbank for about Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".. It was common for homes to have a storefront facing the street and to treat their courtyards as a kind of warehouse.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". The city was part of a network of signal towers so effective that messages could be relayed to Beijing—about Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". away—in less than 24 hours.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

The Canton System was maintained until the outbreak of the First Opium War in 1839. Following a series of battles in the Pearl River Delta, the British captured Guangzhou itself on 18 March 1841.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". The Second Battle of Canton was fought two months later.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Following the Qing Empire's 1842 treaty with Great Britain, Guangzhou lost its privileged trade status as more and more treaty ports were opened to more and more countries, usually including extraterritorial enclaves. Amid the decline of Qing prestige and the chaos of the Taiping Rebellion, the Punti and Hakka waged a series of clan wars from 1855 to 1867 in which 1 million people died.

The concession for the Canton–Hankow Railway was awarded to the American China Development Co. in 1898. It completed its branch line west to Foshan and Sanshui before being engulfed in a diplomatic crisis after a Belgian consortium bought a controlling interest and the Qing cancelled its concession. J.P. Morgan was awarded millions in damages[83] and the line to Wuchang wasn't completed until 1936[84] and a unified Beijing–Guangzhou Railway waited until the completion of Wuhan's Yangtze River Bridge in 1957.

Modern China

Revolutions

Mausoleum of the 72 Martyrs

During the late Qing Dynasty, Guangzhou was the site of failed revolts such as the Uprisings of 1895 and 1911 to overthrow the Qing; the 72 rebels whose bodies were found after the latter uprising are remembered and honoured as the city's 72 Martyrs in the Huanghuagang ("Yellow Flower Mound") Mausoleum.

All these failed revolutionary attempts would eventually lead to the Xinhai Revolution which successfully overthrew the Qing Dynasty to establish a new Han Chinese republic.

Anarchism

Influenced by the ideas of Peter Kropotkin, anarchist newspapers began to circulate whilst the teahouses formed anarcho-syndicalist unions throughout the 1910s. Eventually, the anarchists were able to seize control of the city for a number of years under the banner of the KMT and create a large anarchist commune which was described as 'heavenly' by outsiders. However, the KMT soon cracked down on anarchist members and they sought refuge in the city before it was retaken by government soldiers.[85][86]

Kuomintang rule

After the assassination of Song Jiaoren and Yuan Shikai's attempts to remove Nationalists from power, the leader of Guangdong Hu Hanmin joined the 1913 Second Revolution against him[87] but was forced to flee to Japan with Sun Yat-sen after its failure. The city came under national spotlight again in 1917, when Prime Minister Duan Qirui's abrogation of the constitution triggered the Constitutional Protection Movement. Sun Yat-sen came to head the Guangzhou Military Government supported by the members of the dissolved parliament and the Southwestern warlords. The Guangzhou government fell apart as the warlords withdrew their support. Sun fled to Shanghai in November 1918 until the Guangdong warlord Chen Jiongming restored him in October 1920 during the Yuegui Wars.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". On 16 June 1922, Sun was ousted in a coup and fled on the warship Yongfeng after Chen sided with the Zhili Clique's Beijing government. In the following months Sun mounted a counterattack into Guangdong by rallying supporters from Yunnan and Guangxi, and in January established a government in the city for the third time.

Flag of the ruling Kuomintang

From 1923 to 1926 Sun and the Kuomintang used the city as a base to prosecute a renewed revolution in China by conquering the warlords in the north. Although Sun was previously dependent on opportunistic warlords who hosted him in the city, with the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT developed its own military power to serve its ambition. The Canton years saw the evolution of the KMT into a revolutionary movement with a strong military focus and ideological commitment, setting the tone of the KMT rule of China beyond 1927.

In 1924 the KMT made the momentous decision to ally with the Communist Party and the USSR. With Soviet help, KMT reorganized itself along the Leninist line and adopted a pro-labor and pro-peasant stance. The Kuomintang-CCP cooperation was confirmed in the First Congress of the KMT and the communists were instructed to join the KMT. The allied government set up the Peasant Movement Training Institute in the city, of which Mao Zedong was a director for one term. Sun and his military commander Chiang used Soviet funds and weapons to build an armed force staffed by communist commissars, training its cadres in the Whampoa Military Academy.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". In August, the fledgling army suppressed the Canton Merchants' Corps Uprising. The next year the anti-imperialist May Thirtieth Movement swept the country, and the KMT government called for strikes in Canton and Hong Kong. The tensions of the massive strikes and protests led to the Shakee Massacre.

After the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925 the mood was changing in the party toward the communists. In August the left-wing KMT leader Liao Zhongkai was assassinated and the right-wing leader Hu Hanmin, the suspected mastermind, was exiled to the Soviet Union, leaving the pro-communist Wang Jingwei in charge. Opposing communist encroachment, the right-wing Western Hills Group vowed to expel the communists from the KMT. The "Canton Coup" on 20 March 1926 saw Chiang solidify his control over the Nationalists and their army against Wang Jingwei, the party's left wing, its Communist allies, and its Soviet advisors.[88][89] By May, he had ended civilian control of the military[89] and begun his Northern Expedition against the warlords of the north. Its success led to the split of the KMT between Wuhan and Nanking and the purge of the communists in the Shanghai Massacre. Immediately afterwards Canton joined the purge under the auspice of Li Jishen,resulting in the arrest of communists and the suspension of left wing KMT apparatuses and labor groups. Later in 1927 when Zhang Fakui, a general supportive of the Wuhan faction seized Canton and installed Wang Jingwei's faction in the city, the communists saw an opening and launched the Guangzhou Uprising. Prominent communist military leaders Ye Ting and Ye Jianying led the failed defense of the city. Soon, control of the city reverted to Li Jishen.

Li was deposed in the War between Chiang and Guangxi Clique. By 1929, Chen Jitang had established himself as the powerholder of Guangdong. In 1931 he threw his weight behind the anti-Chiang schism by hosting a separate Nationalist government in Guangzhou.[90] Opposing Chiang's alleged dictatorship, the separatists included KMT leaders like Wang Jingwei, Sun Fo and others from diverse factions. The peace negotiations amidst the armed stand-off led to the 4th National Congress of Kuomintang being held separately by three factions in Nanjing, Shanghai and Canton. Resigning all his posts, Chiang pulled off a political compromise that reunited all factions. While the intraparty division was resolved, Chen kept his power until he was defeated by Chiang in 1936.

Communist takeover

Amid the closing months of the Chinese Civil War, Guangzhou briefly served as the capital of the Republic of China after the liberation of Nanjing by the PLA in April 1949. The People's Liberation Army entered the city on 14 October 1949. Amid a massive exodus to Hong Kong and Macau, the Nationalists blew up the Haizhu Bridge across the Pearl River in retreat. The Cultural Revolution had a large effect on the city with much of its temples, churches and other monuments destroyed during this chaotic period.

The People's Republic of China initiated building projects including new housing on the banks of the Pearl River to adjust the city's boat people to life on land. Since the 1980s, the city's close proximity to Hong Kong and Shenzhen and its ties to overseas Chinese have made it one of the first beneficiaries of China's opening up under Deng Xiaoping. Beneficial tax reforms in the 1990s have also helped the city's industrialisation and development.

The municipality was expanded in the year 2000, with Huadu and Panyu joining the city as urban districts and Conghua and Zengcheng as more rural counties. The former districts of Dongshan and Fangcun were abolished in 2005, merged into Yuexiu and Liwan respectively. The city acquired Nansha and Luogang. The former was carved out of Panyu, the latter from parts of Baiyun, Tianhe, Zengcheng, and an exclave within Huangpu. The National People's Congress approved a development plan for the Pearl River Delta in January 2009; on March 19 the same year, the Guangzhou and Foshan municipal governments agreed to establish a framework to merge the two cities.[91] In 2014, Luogang merged into Huangpu and both Conghua and Zengcheng counties were upgraded to districts. Guangzhou was then the most populous consolidated district-governed city in China until Beijing overtook it the next year.

Gallery

Geography

Tiantang Peak, highest mountain in Guangzhou

The old town of Guangzhou was near Baiyun Mountain on the east bank of the Pearl River (Zhujiang) about Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". from its junction with the South China Sea and about Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". below its head of navigation.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". It commanded the rich alluvial plain of the Pearl River Delta, with its connection to the sea protected at the Humen Strait.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". The present city spans Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". on both sides of the river from 112° 57′ to 114° 03′ E longitude and 22° 26′ to 23° 56′ N latitude in south-central Guangdong. The Pearl is the 3rd-largest river of China.[94] Baiyun Mountain is now locally referred to as the city's "lung" (Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".).[9][95]Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

The elevation of the prefecture generally increases from southwest to northeast, with mountains forming the backbone of the city and the ocean comprising the front. Tiantang Peak (Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"., "Heavenly Peak") is the highest point of elevation at Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". above sea level.

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Natural resources

There are 47 different types of minerals and also 820 ore fields in Guangzhou, including 18 large and medium-sized oil deposits. The major minerals are granite, cement limestone, ceramic clay, potassium, albite, salt mine, mirabilite, nepheline, syenite, fluorite, marble, mineral water, and geothermal mineral water. Since Guangzhou is located in the water-rich area of southern China, it has a wide water area with lots of rivers and water systems, accounting for 10% of the total land area. The rivers and streams improve the landscape and keep the ecological environment of the city stable.[96]

Climate

Despite being located just south of the Tropic of Cancer, Guangzhou has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) influenced by the East Asian monsoon. Summers are wet with high temperatures, high humidity, and a high heat index. Winters are mild and comparatively dry. Guangzhou has a lengthy monsoon season, spanning from April through September. Monthly averages range from Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". in January to Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". in July, while the annual mean is Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..[9] Autumn, from October to December, is very moderate, cool and windy, and is the best travel time.[97] The relative humidity is approximately 68 percent, whereas annual rainfall in the metropolitan area is over Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..[9] With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 17 percent in March and April to 52 percent in November, the city receives 1,628 hours of bright sunshine annually, considerably less than nearby Shenzhen and Hong Kong. Extreme temperatures have ranged from Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". to Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..[98] The last recorded snowfall in the city was on 24 January 2016, 87 years after the second last recorded snowfall.[99]

Template:Guangzhou weatherbox

Administrative divisions

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Guangzhou is a sub-provincial city. It has direct jurisdiction over eleven districts:

Administrative divisions of Guangzhou
Division
code
[100]
Division Area
(km2)[101]
Population
(2010)[102]
Seat Postal
code
Subdivisions[103]
Subdistricts Towns Residential
communities
Administrative
villages
440100 Guangzhou 7,434.40 12,701,948 Yuexiu 510000 136 34 1533 1142
440103 Liwan 59.10 898,200 Shiweitang Subdistrict 510000 22   195  
440104 Yuexiu 33.80 1,157,666 Beijing Subdistrict 510000 18   267  
440105 Haizhu 90.40 1,558,663 Jianghai Subdistrict 510000 18   257  
440106 Tianhe 96.33 1,432,426 Tianyuan Subdistrict 510000 21   205  
440111 Baiyun 795.79 2,223,150 Jingtai Subdistrict 510000 18 4 253 118
440112 Huangpu 484.17 831,586 Luogang Subdistrict 510500 14 1 90 28
440113 Panyu 529.94 1,764,828 Shiqiao Subdistrict 511400 11 5 87 177
440114 Huadu 970.04 945,005 Huacheng Subdistrict 510800 4 6 50 188
440115 Nansha 783.86 259,900 Huangge Town 511400 3 6 28 128
440117 Conghua 1,974.50 593,415 Jiekou Subdistrict 510900 3 5 46 221
440118 Zengcheng 1,616.47 1,037,109 Licheng Subdistrict 511300 4 7 55 282

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Economy

The first Canton Fair (1957) at the Sino-Soviet Friendship Building

Guangzhou is the main manufacturing hub of the Pearl River Delta, one of mainland China's leading commercial and manufacturing regions. In 2013, the GDP reached ¥1542 billion (US$248 billion), per capita was ¥120,515 (US $19,459).[104] Guangzhou is considered one of the most prosperous cities in China. But due to rapid industrialisation, it is also considered one of the most polluted cities.

The Canton Fair, formally the "China Import and Export Fair", is held every year in April and October by the Ministry of Trade. Inaugurated in the spring of 1957, the fair is a major event for the city. It is the trade fair with the longest history, highest level, largest scale in China.[105] From the 104th session onwards, the fair moved to the new Guangzhou International Convention and Exhibition Center (Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".) in Pazhou, from the older complex in Liuhua. The GICEC is served by two stations on Metro Line 8. Since the 104th session, the Canton Fair has been arranged in three phases instead of two phases.

Guangzhou is one the largest hubs of China's illegal drug trade.[106]

Local products

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Industry

Guangzhou Peugeot Automobile Company produced the Peugeot 504 and Peugeot 505 automobiles from 1989 to 1997.

The Export Processing Zone was founded in 2005. Its total planned area is Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..[107] It is located in Nansha District and it belongs to the provincial capital, Guangzhou. The major industries encouraged in the zone include automobile assembly, biotechnology and heavy industry. It is situated Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". (70 minutes drive) south of Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport and close to Nansha Port. It also has the advantage of Guangzhou Metro line 4 which is being extended to Nansha Ferry Terminal.

  • Guangzhou Free Trade Zone

The zone was founded in 1992. It is located in the east of Huangpu District and near to Guangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone. It is also very close to Guangzhou Baiyun Airport.[108] The major industries encouraged in the zone include international trade, logistics, processing and computer software.

Science City

Malls and pedestrian streets

Shangxiajiu Pedestrian Street
Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Demographics

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". The 2010 census found Guangzhou's population to be 12.78 million. As of 2014Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"., it was estimated at 13,080,500,[2][109] with 11,264,800 urban residents.[3] Its population density is thus around 1,800 people per km2. The built-up area of the Guangzhou proper connects directly to several other cities. The built-up area of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone covers around Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". and has been estimated to house 22 million people, including Guangzhou's nine urban districts, Shenzhen (5.36m), Dongguan (3.22m), Zhongshan (3.12m), most of Foshan (2.2m), Jiangmen (1.82m), Zhuhai (890k), and Huizhou's Huiyang District (760k).Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". The total population of this agglomeration is over 28 million after including the population of the adjacent Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". The area's fast-growing economy and high demand for labour has produced a huge "floating population" of migrant workers. Up to 10 million migrants reside in the area least six months each year.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". In 2008, about 5 million of Guangzhou's permanent residents were hukouless migrants.[110]

Ethnicity

Most of Guangzhou's population is Han Chinese. Almost all of the local Cantonese people speak Cantonese as their first language,[112] while most migrants speak forms of Mandarin.[110] In 2010, each language was the native tongue of roughly half of the city's population,[113] although minor but substantial numbers speak other varieties as well. As with elsewhere in the People's Republic of China, the household registration system (hukou) limits migrants' access to residences, educational institutions and other public benefits. In May 2014, legally employed migrants in Guangzhou were permitted to receive a hukou card allowing them to marry and obtain permission for their pregnancies in the city, rather than having to return to their official hometowns as previously.[114]

Historically, the Cantonese people have made up a sizeable part of the 19th- and 20th-century Chinese diaspora and many overseas Chinese have ties to Guangzhou. This is particularly true in the United States,[115] Canada,[116] and Australia.

Demographically, the only significant immigration into China has been by overseas Chinese, but Guangzhou sees many foreign tourists, workers, and residents from the usual locations such as the United States. Notably, it is also home to thousands of African immigrants, including people from Nigeria, Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo.[14]

Metropolitan area

The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"., a population of 25 million.[117][4]

Transportation

Map of the Guangzhou Metro

Urban mass transit

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". When the first line of the Guangzhou Metro opened in 1997, Guangzhou was the fourth city in Mainland China to have an underground railway system, behind Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai. Currently the metro network is made up of thirteen lines, covering a total length of Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..[118] A long-term plan is to make the city's metro system expand to over Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". by 2020 with 15 lines in operation. In addition to the metro system there is also the Haizhu Tram line which opened on 31 December 2014.[119]

The Guangzhou Bus Rapid Transit (GBRT) system which was introduced in 2010 along Zhongshan Road. It has several connections to the metro and is the world's 2nd-largest Bus Rapid Transit system with 1,000,000 passenger trips daily.[120] It handles 26,900 pphpd during the peak hour a capacity second only to the TransMilenio BRT system in Bogota.[121] The system averages 1 bus every 10 seconds or 350 per hour in a single direction and contains the world's longest BRT stations—around Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". including bridges.

Motor transport

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". In the 19th century, city already boasted over 600 long, straight streets; these were mostly paved but still very narrow.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". In June 1919, work began on demolishing the city wall to make way for wider streets and the development of tramways. The demolition took three years in total.[122]

In 2009, it was reported that all 9,424 buses and 17,695 taxis in Guangzhou would be operating on LPG-fuel by 2010 to promote clean energy for transport and improve the environment ahead of the 2010 Asian Games which were held in the city.[123] At presentLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"., Guangzhou is the city that uses the most LPG-fueled vehicles in the world, and at the end of 2006, 6,500 buses and 16,000 taxis were using LPG, taking up 85 percent of all buses and taxis.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Effective January 1, 2007, the municipal government banned motorcycles in Guangdong's urban areas. Motorcycles found violating the ban are confiscated.[124] The Guangzhou traffic bureau claimed to have reported reduced traffic problems and accidents in the downtown area since the ban.[125]

Airports

Guangzhou's main airport is the Baiyun International Airport in Baiyun District; it opened on August 5, 2004.[126] This airport is the second busiest airport in terms of traffic movements in China. It replaced the old Baiyun International Airport, which was very close to the city centre but failed to meet the city's fast-growing air traffic demand. The old Baiyun International Airport was in operation for 72 years. Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport now has three runways, with two more planned.[127] The Terminal 2 is under construction and will open in 2018.[128]

Guangzhou is served by Hong Kong International Airport; ticketed passengers can take ferries from the Lianhuashan Ferry Terminal and Nansha Ferry Port in Nansha District to the HKIA Skypier.[129] There are also coach bus services connecting Guangzhou with HKIA.[130]

Railways

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Guangzhou is the terminus of the Beijing–Guangzhou, Guangzhou–Shenzhen, Guangzhou–Maoming and Guangzhou–Meizhou–Shantou conventional speed railways. In late 2009, the Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway started service, with multiple unit trains covering Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". at a top speed of Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".. In December 2014, the Guiyang–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway and Nanning-Guangzhou Railway began service with trains running at top speeds of Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". and Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"., respectively.[131] The Guangdong Through Train departs from the Guangzhou East railway station and arrives at the Hung Hom KCR station in Kowloon, Hong Kong. The route is approximately Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". in length and the ride takes less than two hours. Frequent coach services are also provided with coaches departing every day from different locations (mostly major hotels) around the city. A number of regional railways radiating from Guangzhou started operating such as the Guangzhou–Zhuhai Intercity Railway and the Guangzhou-Zhaoqing Intercity Railway.

Water transport

There are daily high-speed catamaran services between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Lianhua Shan Ferry Terminal in Guangzhou and the Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal, as well as between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Macau Ferry Pier in Hong Kong.

Culture

Guangzhou Opera House

Within China, the culture of the Cantonese people is a subset of the larger "Southern" or "Lingnan" cultural areas. Notable aspects of Guangzhou's cultural heritage include:

The Guangzhou Opera House & Symphony Orchestra also perform classical Western music and Chinese compositions in their style. Cantonese music is a traditional style of Chinese instrumental music, while Cantopop is the local form of pop music and rock-and-roll which developed from neighbouring Hong Kong.

Religions

Qing-era Guangzhou had around 124 religious pavilions, halls, and temples.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Today, in addition to the Buddhist Association, Guangzhou also has a Taoist Association, a Jewish community,[134][135] and a history with Christianity and Islam.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Daoism

Daoism and Chinese folk religion are still represented at a few of the city's temples. Among the most important is the Temple of the Five Immortals, honoring the five immortals credited with introducing rice cultivation at the foundation of the city. The five rams they rode were supposed to have turned into stones upon their departure and gave the city several of its nicknames.[136] Another place of worship is the City God Temple. Guangzhou, like most of southern China, is also notably observant concerning ancestral veneration during occasions like the Tomb Sweeping and Ghost Festivals.

Buddhism

Buddhism is the most prominent religion in Guangzhou.[137] The Zhizhi Temple was founded in AD 233 from the estate of a Wu official; it is said to comprise the residence of Zhao Jiande, the last of the Nanyue kings, and has been known as the Guangxiao Temple ("Temple of Bright Filial Piety") since the Ming. The missionary Bodhidharma is traditionally said to have visited Panyu during the Liu Song or Liang dynasties (5th or 6th century). Around AD 520, Emperor Wu of the Liang ordered the construction of the Baozhuangyan Temple and the Xilai Monastery to store the relics of Cambodian Buddhist saints which had been brought to the city and to house the monks beginning to assemble there. The Baozhuangyan is now known as the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees, after a famous poem composed by Su Shi after a visit during the Northern Song.[138] The Xilai Monastery was renamed the Hualin Temple ("Flowery Forest Temple") after its reconstruction during the Qing.

The temples were damaged by both the Republican campaign to "Promote Education with Temple Property" (Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".) and the Maoist Cultural Revolution but have been renovated since the opening up that began in the 1980s. The Ocean Banner Temple on Henan Island, once famous in the west as the only tourist spot in Guangzhou accessible to foreigners, has been reopened as the Hoi Tong Monastery.

Christianity

Nestorian Christians first arrived in China via the overland Silk Road, but suffered during Emperor Wuzong's 845 persecution and were essentially extinct by the year 1000.[139] The Qing-era ban on foreigners limited missionaries until it was abolished following the First Opium War, although the Protestant Robert Morrison was able to perform some work through his service with the British factory. The Catholic archdiocese is housed at Guangzhou's Sacred Heart Cathedral, known locally as the "Stone House". A Gothic Revival edifice which was built by hand from 1861 to 1888 under French direction, its original Latin and French stained-glass windows were destroyed during the wars and amid the Cultural Revolution; they have since been replaced by English ones. The Canton Christian College (1888) and Hackett Medical College for Women (1902) were both founded by missionaries and now form part of Guangzhou's Lingnan. Since the opening up of China in the 1980s, there has been renewed interest in Christianity, but Guangzhou maintains pressure on underground churches which avoid registration with government officials.[140] The Catholic archbishop Dominic Tang was imprisoned without trial for 22 years, but his present successor is recognised by both the Vatican and China's Patriotic Church.

Islam

Guangzhou has had a Muslim community since very early in the history of Islam; the native or nativised adherents of the faith are known as the Hui. Huaisheng Mosque was probably built during the Tang Dynasty.[141] Muslims sacked the city in 758[44][45][46][47] and were massacred by the Chinese rebel Huang Chao in 878, along with the Jews, Christians,[48][49][50] and Parsis.[51][52] The modern city includes numerous halal restaurants.[142]

Sport

The 18,000 seat Guangzhou International Sports Arena will be one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.[143]

From 12–27 November 2010, Guangzhou hosted the 16th Asian Games. The same year, it hosted the first Asian Para Games from December 12 to 19. Combined, these were the largest sporting events the city ever hosted.[144]

Guangzhou also hosted the following major sporting events:

Current professional sports clubs based in Guangzhou include:

Sport League Tier Club Stadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao Tianhe Stadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou R&F Yuexiushan Stadium
Football Hong Kong Premier League 1st R&F Yanzigang Stadium
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Guangzhou Long-Lions Tianhe Gymnasium
Baseball China Baseball League 1st Guangdong Leopards Tianhe Sports Center baseball field

Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao F.C. has risen in recent years to be a powerhouse in association football in China, having won seven consecutive national titles between 2011 and 2017. The team also won the AFC Champions League in 2013 and 2015. The club competed in the 2013 and 2015 FIFA Club World Cup, where it lost 3–0 in the semi-final stage to the 2012–13 UEFA Champions League winners FC Bayern Munich and 2014–15 UEFA Champions League winners FC Barcelona respectively.[145]

Destinations

Eight Views

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The Eight Views of Ram City are Guangzhou's eight most famous tourist attractions. They have varied over time since the Song dynasty, with some being named or demoted by emperors. The following modern list was chosen through public appraisal in 2011:Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

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Parks and gardens

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  • Baiyun Mountain
  • Nansha Wetland Park
  • People's Park
  • South China Botanical Garden
  • Yuexiu Park
  • Dongshanhu Park (Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".)
  • Liuhuahu Park (Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".)
  • Liwanhu Park (Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".)
  • Luhu Park (Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".)
  • Martyrs' Park (Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".)
  • Pearl River Park (Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".)
  • Yuntai Garden (Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".)

Tourist attractions

Guangzhou attracts more than 100 million visitors each year.[147] There are many tourist attractions, including:

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Major buildings

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Media

Guangzhou has two local radio stations: the provincial Radio Guangdong and the municipal Radio Guangzhou. Together they broadcast in more than a dozen channels. The primary language of both stations is Cantonese. Traditionally only one channel of Radio Guangdong is dedicated to Mandarin Chinese. However, in recent years there has been an increase in Mandarin programmes on most Cantonese channels. Radio stations from cities around Guangzhou mainly broadcast in Cantonese and can be received in different parts of the city, depending on the radio stations' locations and transmission power. The Beijing-based China National Radio also broadcasts Mandarin programmes in the city. Radio Guangdong has a 30-minute weekly English programme, Guangdong Today, which is broadcast globally through the World Radio Network. Daily English news programmes are also broadcast by Radio Guangdong.

Guangzhou has some of the best Chinese-language newspapers and magazines in mainland China, most of which are published by three major newspaper groups in the city, the Guangzhou Daily Press Group, Nanfang Press Corporation, and the Yangcheng Evening News Group. The two leading newspapers of the city are Guangzhou Daily and Southern Metropolis Daily. The former, with a circulation of 1.8 million, has been China's most successful newspaper for 14 years in terms of advertising revenue, while Southern Metropolis Daily is considered one of the most liberal newspapers in mainland China. In addition to Guangzhou's Chinese-language publications, there are a few English magazines and newspapers. The most successful is That's Guangzhou, which started more than a decade ago and has since blossomed into That's PRD, producing expatriate magazines in Beijing and Shanghai as well. It also produces In the Red.

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Education

File:Sun Yat-sen University.JPG
The College of Medical Science at Sun Yat-sen University
Guangzhou Library

The Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, also known as Guangzhou University Town (Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".), is a large tertiary education complex located in the southeast suburbs of Guangzhou. It occupies the entirety of Xiaoguwei Island in Panyu District, covering an area of about Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".. The complex accommodates campuses from ten higher education institutions and can eventually accommodate up to 200,000 students, 20,000 teachers, and 50,000 staff.[148]

The Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre higher education campuses:

Guangzhou's other fully accredited and degree-granting universities and colleges include:

The two main comprehensive libraries are Guangzhou Library and Sun Yat-sen Library of Guangdong Province. Guangzhou Library is a public library in Guangzhou. The library has moved to a new building in Zhujiang New Town, which fully opened on 23 June 2013.[149] Sun Yat-sen Library of Guangdong Province has the largest collection of ancient books in Southern China.[150]

International relations

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Twin towns and sister cities

Guangzhou currently maintains sister city agreements with the following foreign cities.[151][152]

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • JapanLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Fukuoka, Japan (since 1979)
  • United StatesLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Los Angeles, United States (since 1981)
  • PhilippinesLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Manila, Philippines (since 1982)
  • CanadaLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Vancouver, Canada (since 1985)
  • AustraliaLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Sydney, Australia (since 1986)
  • ItalyLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Bari, Italy (since 1986)
  • FranceLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Lyon, France (since 1988)
  • GermanyLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Frankfurt, Germany (since 1988)
  • New ZealandLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Auckland, New Zealand (since 1989)
  • South KoreaLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Gwangju, South Korea (since 1996)
  • SwedenLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Linköping, Sweden (since 1997)
  • South AfricaLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Durban, South Africa (since 2000)
  • United KingdomLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Bristol, United Kingdom (since 2001)
  • RussiaLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Yekaterinburg, Russia (since 2002)
  • PeruLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Arequipa, Peru (since 2004)
  • IndonesiaLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Surabaya, Indonesia (since 2005)
  • LithuaniaLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Vilnius, Lithuania (since 2006)
  • United KingdomLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Birmingham, United Kingdom (since 2006)
  • Sri LankaLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Hambantota, Sri Lanka (since 2007)
  • BrazilLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Recife, Brazil (since 2007)
  • FinlandLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Tampere, Finland (since 2008)
  • ThailandLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Bangkok, Thailand (since 2009)
  • MalaysiaLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia (since 2011)
  • MalaysiaLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Petaling Jaya, Malaysia (since 2012)
  • MoroccoLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Rabat, Morocco (since 2013)
  • IndiaLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Ahmedabad, India (since 2014)
  • PolandLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Łódź, Poland (since 2014)
  • MexicoLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Ecatepec, Mexico (since 2016)[153][154][155][156]
  • ItalyLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Genoa, Italy (since 2016)

See also

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Notes

  1. Given in contemporary sources as the "Guisi Day" (癸巳) of the 9th lunar month of the first year of the Qianyuan Era under Emperor Suzong of the Tang.
  2. The term "Persian" may, however, have been loosely applied and referred indifferently to any similar-looking foreign women.[55]
  3. "Buying and selling of children was scarcely unknown in Ming China, but the large new demands of the Portuguese may have stimulated kidnappings from good families..."[67]
  4. "Some early Chinese historians go even so far as to give vivid details of the price paid for the children and how they were roasted."[72]
  5. "On the day of St Nicholas [6 Dec.] in the year 1522 they put boards on them with the sentence that they should die and be exposed in pillories as robbers. The sentences said: 'Petty sea robbers sent by the great robber falsely; they come to spy out our country; let them die in pillories as robbers.' A report was sent to the king according to the information of the mandarins, and the king confirmed the sentence. On 23 Sept. 1523 these twenty-three persons were each one cut in pieces, to wit, heads, legs, arms, and their private members placed in their mouths, the trunk of the body being divided into two pieces round the belly. In the streets of Canton, outside the walls, in the suburbs, through the principal streets they were put to death, at distances of one crossbow shot from one another, that all might see them, both those of Canton and those of the environs, in order to give them to understand that they thought nothing of the Portuguese, so that the people might not talk of the Portuguese. Thus... they were all killed, and their heads and private members were carried on the backs of the Portuguese in front of the mandarins of Canton with the playing of musical instruments and rejoicing, were exhibited suspended in the streets, and were then thrown into the dunghills. And from henceforth it was resolved not to allow any more Portuguese into the country nor other strangers."[78]
  6. The Shaowu Emperor's remains are buried in Yuexiu Park.
  7. In fact, the Danish Asiatic Company was formally chartered in April 1732 while this first ship, the Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"., was on its return trip.[81] Counting the Cron-Printz Christian, up to 1833, the DAC dispatched 130 ships to Guangzhou, losing five. The average voyage from Copenhagen took 216 days and the voyage back, 192.Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  8. The statement is an excerpt from the longer proverb "Be born in Suzhou, play in Hangzhou, eat in Guangzhou, and die in Liuzhou" (Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".).
  9. The other seven are the cuisines of Anhui, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan and Zhejiang.[133]

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References

Citations

  1. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  2. 2.0 2.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  3. 3.0 3.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  4. 4.0 4.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Linked from the OECD here Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  5. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  6. "Guangzhou (China) Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".". Encyclopædia Britannica. Accessed September 12, 2010.
  7. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  8. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  10. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  11. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  12. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  13. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  14. 14.0 14.1 China cracks down on African immigrants and traders Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"., The Guardian, 6 October 2010
  15. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  16. 广州常住非裔人士或达30万 被称作第三世界首都 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  17. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  18. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  19. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  20. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  21. Xu,[20] citing an earlier work.
  22. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  23. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  24. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  25. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  26. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  27. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  28. 28.0 28.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  29. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  30. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  31. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  32. See citations in Yule & al.[28]
  33. 33.0 33.1 EB (1878), p. 37.
  34. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  35. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  36. 36.0 36.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  37. 37.0 37.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  38. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  39. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  40. 40.0 40.1 Yü (1987), p. 453.
  41. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  42. 刘煦.旧唐书·王方庆传〔M〕.北京:中华书局,1975
  43. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  44. 44.0 44.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  45. 45.0 45.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  46. 46.0 46.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  47. 47.0 47.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  48. 48.0 48.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  49. 49.0 49.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  50. 50.0 50.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". (Abu Zayd Husayn al-Sirafi, Rihlat al-Sirafi, al-Mujamma' al-thaqafi, Abu Dhabi, 1990)
  51. 51.0 51.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  52. 52.0 52.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  53. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  54. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  55. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  56. Dunn (2005), p. 259.
  57. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  58. Von Glahn (1996), p. 90.
  59. Li (2010), p. 3.
  60. Von Glahn (1996), p. 116.
  61. Von Glahn (1996), p. 91.
  62. 62.0 62.1 Knight's (1841), p. 135.
  63. Cortesao (1944), p. xxxiv.
  64. Wills (1998), p. 331.
  65. Wills (1998), pp. 331–2.
  66. 66.0 66.1 Douglas (2006), p. 11.
  67. 67.0 67.1 Wills & al. (2010), p. 28.
  68. 68.0 68.1 Dutra & al. (1995), p. 426.
  69. Wills (1998), pp. 337–8.
  70. Cortesao (1944), p. xxxvii.
  71. 71.0 71.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  72. Cortesao (1944), p. xxxix.
  73. Wills (1998), p. 339.
  74. Cortesao (1944), p. xl, xliii.
  75. Wills (1998), p. 340.
  76. 76.0 76.1 Cortesao (1944), p. xliv–v.
  77. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  78. Vieira[77] in Cortesao.[76]
  79. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  80. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  81. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".& Template:Zh icon
  82. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  83. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  84. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  85. Dongyoun Hwang, "Korean Anarchism Before 1945: A Regional and Transnational Approach" in Anarchism and Syndicalism in the Colonial and Postcolonial World, 118.
  86. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  87. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  88. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  89. 89.0 89.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  90. 李洁之,陈济棠主粤始末,《广州文史》第三十七辑。
  91. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  92. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  93. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  94. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  95. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  96. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  97. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  98. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Mherrera
  99. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  100. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  101. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  102. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  103. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  104. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  105. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  106. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  107. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  108. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  109. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named statyb2012
  110. 110.0 110.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  111. 111.0 111.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  112. The People's Daily,Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". cited by The Guardian.[111]
  113. The People's Daily,Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". cited by The Guardian.[111]
  114. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  115. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  116. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  117. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  118. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  119. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  120. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  121. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  122. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  123. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  124. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  125. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  126. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  127. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  128. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  129. "Ferry Transfer." Hong Kong International Airport. Retrieved on May 8, 2018.
  130. "Mainland Coaches." Hong Kong International Airport. Retrieved on May 8, 2018.
  131. (Chinese) 陈清浩, "贵广高铁正式开通运营 从贵阳到广州4小时可达" 南方日报 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". 2014-12-26
  132. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  133. "Fujian Cuisine. Beautyfujian.com Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".. Accessed June 2011.
  134. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  135. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  136. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  137. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  138. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  139. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  140. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  141. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  142. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  143. The Official website of the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"., FIBA.com, Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  144. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  145. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  146. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  147. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  148. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  149. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  150. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  151. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  152. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  153. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  154. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  155. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  156. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Bibliography

  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9"..
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Further reading

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  • Guangzhou Statistical Yearbook 2016

External links

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Preceded by
Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
Capital of Nanyue
Nanyue
204–111 BC
Succeeded by
Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
Preceded by
Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
Capital of China
Republic of China
July 1, 1925 – February 21, 1927
Succeeded by
Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
Preceded by
Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
Capital of China
Republic of China
May 28, 1931 – December 22, 1931
Succeeded by
Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
Preceded by
Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
Capital of China
Republic of China
April 23, 1949 – October 14, 1949
Succeeded by
Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Template:Guangzhou Template:Guangdong Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Template:Major cities along the Pearl River Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".