Artisanal fishing (or traditional/subsistence fishing) consists of various small-scale, low-technology, low-capital, fishing practices undertaken by individual fishing households (as opposed to commercial companies). Many of these households are of coastal or island ethnic groups. These households make short (rarely overnight) fishing trips close to the shore. Their produce is usually not processed and is mainly for local consumption. Artisan fishing uses traditional fishing techniques such as rod and tackle, fishing arrows and harpoons, cast nets, and small (if any) traditional fishing boats. For that reason, socio-economic status of artisanal fishing community has become an interest of the authories in recent years.
Artisan fishing may be undertaken for both commercial and subsistence reasons. It contrasts with large-scale modern commercial fishing practices in that it is often less wasteful and less stressful on fish populations than modern industrial fishing. Target 14.b of Sustainable Development Goal 14 works to provide access rights to artisanal fishers on marine resources and markets.
Hundreds of millions of people around the world rely on artisanal fisheries to live. Artisanal fishing is critically important for not only food, but for jobs, income, nutrition, food security, sustainable livelihoods, and poverty alleviation as well. Artisanal fisheries are the predominant form of fisheries in "tropical developing countries" such as Nigeria.
The importance of artisanal and small-scale fisheries have been recognized in the first internationally agreed instrument dedicated entirely to small-scale fisheries. This agreement, drafted by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is titled the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication and was implemented in 2015. In addition, there is increased global advocacy to provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and market, this is one of the major targets of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 14.
Artisan fishing boats and gears
A traditional dug out canoe between 3–18 meters long is used in Nigeria for artisanal fishing. Artisanal fishers in this area use gear that included, "cast nets, handlines, basket traps, longlines, set gillnets and beach and purse seines."
Fishing vessels used in Sudan include from the sharoaq, feluka and murkab al hadeed. Equipment varies by region and includes fixed nets, drift nets, seine nets, long line and cast nets.
Fisherman landing his catch, Seychelles.
Fisherman and his catch, Seychelles. The fish, including small sharks, were hooked on hand lines many miles off shore.
Cormorants used for fishing in China
- Artisanal food
- Fishing weir
- Fishing village
- Traditional fishing boat
- Community-supported fishery
- 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
- Blue justice
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- "Los Hombres del Lago", a documentary film by Aaron I. Naar presenting the story of the smallest Bolivian fishing community of Uru-Muratos, Puñaca Tintamaria. Narrated by the community's ex-leader, Daniel Moricio Choque, the movie recounts the history of their community, customs, and current problems: their continuous poverty, lack of land and representation, the contamination of Lake Poopó, and the impact of global warming. See a 12 minutes fragment from the film on YouTube.
- Subsistence: Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, First Session, to Examine Wildlife Management Authority Within the State of Alaska under the Alaska National Interest Lands Act and the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, September 19, 2013
- What is Artisan Fishing[permanent dead link]