|1890 in topic|
Archaeology – Architecture – Art
Literature – Music
|Australia – Belgium – Brazil – Canada – Denmark – France – Germany – Mexico – New Zealand – Norway – Philippines – Portugal – Russia – South Africa – Spain – Sweden – United Kingdom – United States – Venezuela|
|Rail transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Sovereign states – State leaders – Territorial governors – Religious leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2643|
|Balinese saka calendar||1811–1812|
|British Regnal year||53 Vict. 1 – 54 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar||己丑年 (Earth Ox)|
4586 or 4526
— to —
庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)
4587 or 4527
|- Vikram Samvat||1946–1947|
|- Shaka Samvat||1811–1812|
|- Kali Yuga||4990–4991|
|Japanese calendar||Meiji 23|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||22 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2432–2433|
2016 or 1635 or 863
— to —
2017 or 1636 or 864
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1890.|
1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1890th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 890th year of the 2nd millennium, the 90th year of the 19th century, and the 1st year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1890, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- 1 Events
- 2 Births
- 3 Deaths
- 4 References
- 5 Further reading and year books
- January 1
- January 2
- January 11 – 1890 British Ultimatum: The United Kingdom demands Portugal withdraw its forces from the land between the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola (most of present-day Zimbabwe and Zambia).
- January 15 – The Sleeping Beauty, with music by Tchaikovsky, is premiered at the Imperial Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg, Russia.
- January 25
- February 5 – A worldwide insurance and financial service brand, Allianz was founded in Berlin, Germany.
- February 9 – The Weather Bureau is established, within the United States Department of Agriculture.
- February 11 – The city of Araucária is founded in Brazil.
- February 17[dubious ] – The British steamship Duburg is wrecked in the South China Sea; 400 lives are lost.
- February 24 – Chicago is selected to host the Columbian Exposition.
- March 1
- March 3 – The first American football game in Ohio State University history is played in Delaware, Ohio, against Ohio Wesleyan, with the Ohio State Buckeyes winning 20–14.
- March 4 – The Forth Bridge, across the Firth of Forth in Scotland, is opened to rail traffic.
- March 8 – North Dakota State University is founded in Fargo.
- March 17 – The first railway in Transvaal, the Randtram, opens between Boksburg and Braamfontein in Johannesburg.
- March 20 – Kaiser Wilhelm II dismisses Otto von Bismarck.
- March 27
- March 1890 middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak: 24 significant tornadoes are spawned by one system, killing least 146 people.
- Preston North End retain the English Football League Championship, winning their final game at Notts County
- March 28 – Washington State University is founded in Pullman.
- April 2 – Kashihara Shrine, a landmark spot in Nara Prefecture, Japan, is officially built by Emperor Mutsuhito (Emperor of Meiji).
- April 14 – At the First International Conference of American States, in Washington D.C., The Commercial Bureau of the American Republics is founded.
- May 1 – A coordinated series of mass rallies and one-day strikes is held throughout many cities and mining towns, in Europe and North America, to demand an eight-hour workday.
- May 2 – President Benjamin Harrison signs the Oklahoma Organic Act, under which Oklahoma Territory is organized, a prerequisite for later statehood.
- May 12 – The first ever official English County Championship cricket match begins in Bristol; Yorkshire beats Gloucestershire, by eight wickets.
- May 20 – Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh moves to Auvers-sur-Oise on the edge of Paris, in the care of Dr Paul Gachet, where he will produce around seventy paintings in as many days.
- May 31 – The five-story skylight Arcade opens in Cleveland, Ohio.
- June 1 – The United States Census Bureau begins using Herman Hollerith's tabulating machine to tabulate census returns using punched card input, a landmark in the history of computing hardware. Hollerith's company eventually becomes IBM.
- June 12 – In Michigan, the wooden steamer Ryan is lost near Thunder Bay Island.
- June 16 – Royal Dutch Petroleum, as predecessor of Royal Dutch Shell, a major energy product and sales on worldwide, that founded in Netherlands.
- June 20 – The Picture of Dorian Gray (by Oscar Wilde) is published by Philadelphia-based Lippincott's Monthly Magazine (dated July).
- June 27 – Canadian-born boxer George Dixon defeats the British bantamweight champion in London, giving him claim to be the first black world champion in any sport.
- July 1
- Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty: Britain cedes the Heligoland islands (in the German Bight) to Germany, in return for protectorates over Wituland and the Sultanate of Zanzibar (the islands of Pemba and Unguja) in east Africa.
- 1890 Japanese general election: In the first general election for the House of Representatives of Japan, about 5% of the adult male population elect a lower house of the Diet of Japan, in accordance with the new Meiji Constitution of 1889.
- July 2 – The Sherman Antitrust Act and Sherman Silver Purchase Act become United States law.
- July 3 – Idaho is admitted as the 43rd U.S. state.
- July 10 – Wyoming is admitted as the 44th U.S. state.
- July 13 – In Minnesota, storms result in the Sea Wing disaster on Lake Pepin, killing 98.
- July 14 – Lime-green is first described as a color.
- July 26 – In Buenos Aires, the Revolution of the Park takes place, forcing President Juárez Celman's resignation.
- July 27 – Death of Vincent van Gogh: van Gogh shoots himself, dying two days later.
- August 6 – At Auburn Prison in New York, William Kemmler becomes the first person to be executed in the electric chair.
- August 20 – Treaty of London: Portugal and the United Kingdom define the borders of the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola.
- August 23 – The BOVESPA stock exchange is founded.
- August – Kaiser Wilhelm II and Tsar Alexander III meet at Narva.
- September 6 – Dublin association football club Bohemian F.C. is founded in the Gate Lodge, Phoenix Park.
- September 12 – Salisbury, Rhodesia is founded.
- September 19
- September 25
- October 9 – The first brief flight of Clément Ader's steam-powered fixed-wing aircraft Ader Éole takes place in Satory, France. It flies uncontrolled approximately 50 m (160 ft) at a height of 20 cm (7.9 in), the first take-off of a powered airplane solely under its own power.
- October 11 – In Washington, D.C., the Daughters of the American Revolution is founded.
- October 12 – In Uddevalla, the Uddevalla Suffrage Association is founded, with a formal founding event on November 2 a month later.
- October 13
- November 4 – The first deep level London Underground (Tube) Railway, the City and South London Railway, opens officially.
- November 21 – Edward King, Anglican bishop of Lincoln, is convicted of using ritualistic practices.
- November 23 – King William III of the Netherlands dies without a male heir, and his daughter Princess Wilhelmina becomes Queen, causing the end of the personal union of thrones with Luxembourg (which requires a male heir) so that Adolphe, Duke of Nassau becomes Grand Duke of Luxembourg.
- November 29
- November – Scotland Yard, headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, moves to a building on London's Victoria Embankment, as New Scotland Yard.
- December 15 – Hunkpapa Lakota leader Sitting Bull is killed by police on Standing Rock Indian Reservation.
- December 27 – The British steamship Shanghai burns in the East China Sea off the coast of Anhui Province; 101 lives are lost.
- December 29 – Wounded Knee Massacre: At Wounded Knee, South Dakota, a Native American camp, the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment tries to disperse the non-violent "Ghost-Dance" which was promised to usher in a new era of power and freedom to Native Americans but is feared as a potential rallying tool for violent rebellion by some in the U.S. government. Shooting begins, and 153 Lakota Sioux and 25 troops are killed; about 150 flee the scene. This is the last tribe to be defeated and confined to a reservation as well as the beginning of the decline of both the American Indian Wars and the American frontier.
- The folding carton box is invented by Robert Gair, a Brooklyn printer who developed production of paper-board boxes in 1879.
- The United States city of Boise, Idaho, drills the first geothermal well.
- Brown trout are introduced into the upper Firehole River, in Yellowstone National Park.
- High School Cadets is written by John Philip Sousa.
- William II of Prussia opposes Bismarck's attempt to renew the law outlawing the Social Democratic Party.
- Blackwall Buildings, Whitechapel, noted philanthropic housing, is built in the East End of London.
- English archaeologist Flinders Petrie excavates at Tell el-Hesi, Palestine (mistakenly identified as Tel Lachish), the first scientific excavation of an archaeological site in the Holy Land, during which he discovers how tells are formed.
- American geostrategist Alfred Thayer Mahan publishes his influential book The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783.
- Francis Galton announces a statistical demonstration of the uniqueness and classifiability of individual human fingerprints.
- Alfred Tucker becomes Anglican Bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa.
- The Ohio Northern University Marching Band is founded as a part of the military department. Now known as the “Star of Northwest Ohio” they perform regularly each football season and travel across the world through their sponsoring university.
- Japanese tractor and iron pipe brand, Kubota founded in Osaka, Japan.[page needed]
- Emerson Electric, an American electronics industry giant, founded in Missouri.
- As known well for worldwide tire brand, Dunlop was founded in Dublin, Ireland.
- January 1 – Anton Melik, Slovenian geographer (d. 1966)
- January 2 – Madoline Thomas, Welsh actress (d. 1989)
- January 4
- January 5 – Sarah Aaronsohn, member of the Jewish spy ring Nili (d. 1917)
- January 8 – Taixu, Chinese Buddhist activist (d. 1947)
- January 9
- January 11 – Oswald de Andrade, Brazilian Modernist writer (d.1954)
- January 13 – Jüri Uluots, 8th Prime Minister of Estonia (d. 1945)
- January 19 – Élise Rivet, French Roman Catholic nun and war heroine (d. 1945)
- January 20
- January 21 – Wesley Englehorn, American football player (d. 1993)
- January 22 – Fred M. Vinson, Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1953)
- January 28
- February 9 – Carolina Nabuco, Brazilian writer and translator (d. 1981)
- February 10 – Boris Pasternak, Russian writer (Doctor Zhivago), Nobel Prize laureate (declined) (d. 1960)
- February 14 – Nina Hamnett, Welsh painter (d. 1956)
- February 15 – Matome Ugaki, Japanese admiral (d. 1945)
- February 16 – Francesco de Pinedo, Italian aviator (d. 1933)
- February 17
- February 18
- February 24 – Marjorie Main, American actress (d. 1975)
- February 25
- February 27
- March 1 – Theresa Bernstein, Polish-born American artist and writer (d. 2002)
- March 4 – Norman Bethune, Canadian doctor and humanitarian (d. 1939)
- March 8 – Eugeniusz Baziak, Polish Roman Catholic archbishop (d. 1962)
- March 9
- March 11 – Vannevar Bush, American engineer, inventor, and politician (d. 1960)
- March 19 – Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, African-American artist known for her sculpture. (d. 1960)
- March 20
- March 26 – Aaron S. "Tip" Merrill, American admiral (d. 1961)
- March 28 – Paul Whiteman, American bandleader (d. 1967)
- March 31 – William Lawrence Bragg, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1971)
- April 6 – Anthony Fokker, Dutch aircraft manufacturer (d. 1939)
- April 7
- April 13
- Frank Murphy, American politician and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1949)
- Dadasaheb Torne, Indian filmmaker (d. 1960)
- April 11 – Rachele Mussolini, Italian, wife of Benito Mussolini (d. 1979)
- April 15 – Percy Shaw, British inventor (d. 1976)
- April 16
- April 17 – Victor Chapman, French-American fighter pilot (d. 1916)
- April 18 – Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (d.1958)
- April 20
- April 21 – Michitaro Tozuka, Japanese admiral (d. 1966)
- April 24 – Masatane Kanda, Japanese general (d. 1983)
- April 26 – Edgar Kennedy, American comedic actor (d. 1948)
- April 29 – Daisy Fellowes, French society figure, writer and heiress (d. 1962)
- April 30 – Géza Lakatos, 36th Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1967)
- May 1
- May 4 – Franklin Carmichael, Canadian artist (d. 1945)
- May 7 – George Archainbaud, French film director (d. 1959)
- May 10 – Alfred Jodl, German general (d. 1946)
- May 11 – Woodall Rodgers, mayor of Dallas, Texas (d. 1961)
- May 15 – Katherine Anne Porter, American author (d. 1980)
- May 19 – Ho Chi Minh, Prime minister/President of North Vietnam (d. 1969)
- May 22 – Simion Coman, Romanian general (d. 1971)
- May 23 – Herbert Marshall, English actor (d. 1966)
- June 1 – Frank Morgan, American actor (d. 1949)
- June 6 – Ted Lewis, American jazz musician and entertainer (d. 1971)
- June 10 – William A. Seiter, American film director (d. 1964)
- June 11 – Béla Miklós, 38th Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1948)
- June 12 – Junius Matthews, American actor (d. 1978)
- June 16 – Stan Laurel, English-born actor (d. 1965)
- June 17 – Hatazō Adachi, Japanese general (d. 1947)
- June 21 – Lewis H. Brereton, American aviation pioneer and air force general (d. 1967)
- June 23 – Salvatore Papaccio, Italian tenor (d. 1977)
- June 25 – Charlotte Greenwood, American actress (d. 1977)
- June 26
- June 28 – William H. P. Blandy, American admiral (d. 1954)
- June 29
- June 30
- July 9 – Joseph-Alphida Crête, Canadian politician (d. 1964)
- July 10 – Leo Rush, Australian rules footballer (d. 1983)
- July 11 – Arthur Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, British air force air marshal (d. 1967)
- July 16
- July 18 – Frank Forde, 15th Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1983)
- July 19 – George II of Greece, King of Greece (d. 1947)
- July 20 – Verna Felton, American character actress (d. 1966)
- July 22 – Rose Kennedy, American philanthropist and matriarch of the Kennedy family (d. 1995)
- July 26
- July 29 – P. S. Subrahmanya Sastri, Sanskrit scholar. First to translate Tolkāppiyam into English (d. 1978)
- August 2 – Marin Sais, American film actress (d. 1971)
- August 3 – Konstantin Melnikov, Russian avant-garde architect (d. 1974)
- August 4 – Erich Weinert, German writer and political activist (d. 1953)
- August 5 – Erich Kleiber, Austrian conductor (d. 1956)
- August 10
- August 15
- August 18 – Walther Funk, German politician (d. 1960)
- August 20 – H. P. Lovecraft, American writer (d. 1937)
- August 22
- August 24 – Duke Kahanamoku, American swimmer (d. 1968)
- September 9 – Colonel Harland Sanders, Founder of KFC (d. 1980)
- September 8 – Dorothy Price, Irish physician (d. 1954)
- September 10
- September 15
- September 20
- September 21 – Max Immelmann, German World War I fighter ace (d. 1916)
- September 23
- September 24 – A. P. Herbert, English humorist, novelist, playwright and law reform activist (d. 1971)
- October 1
- October 2 – Groucho Marx, American comedian (d. 1977)
- October 3 – Emilio Portes Gil, Mexican teacher, journalist, lawyer, and substitute President of Mexico, 1928–1930 (d. 1978)
- October 6 – Jack Rockwell, Mexican-American actor (d. 1947)
- October 8
- October 9 – Aimee Semple McPherson, Canadian-American Pentecostal Evangelist (d. 1944)
- October 13 – Conrad Richter, American novelist and short story writer (d. 1968)
- October 14 – Dwight D. Eisenhower, US general and 34th President of the United States (d. 1969)
- October 16
- October 17 – Roy Kilner, English cricketer (d. 1928)
- October 20 – Sherman Minton, American politician and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1965)
- October 23 – Abdul Hamid Karami, 16th Prime Minister of Lebanon (d. 1950)
- October 25 – Floyd Bennett, American aviator and explorer (d. 1928)
- October 26 – John Aae, Norwegian politician (d. 1968)
- October 29 – Hans-Valentin Hube, German army general (d. 1944)
- November 7
- November 8 – Conrad Weygand, German chemist (d. 1945)
- November 9 – Grigory Kulik, Soviet military officer, Marshal of the Soviet Union (d. 1950)
- November 16 – Elpidio Quirino, 6th President of the Philippines (d. 1956)
- November 20 – Leon Cadore, American baseball pitcher (d. 1968)
- November 22 – Charles de Gaulle, President of France (d. 1970)
- November 23 – El Lissitzky, Russian artist and architect (d. 1941)
- December 5
- December 6 – Dion Fortune, British occultist (d. 1946)
- December 8 – Bohuslav Martinů, Czech composer (d. 1959)
- December 10
- December 11 – Carlos Gardel, Argentine tango singer (d. 1935)
- December 12 – Charles Basil Price, Canadian soldier and politician (d. 1975)
- December 17 – Prince Joachim of Prussia (suicide 1920)
- December 20 – Jaroslav Heyrovský, Czech chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1967)
- December 21 – Hermann Joseph Muller, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1967)
- December 25 – Robert Ripley, American collector of odd facts (d. 1949)
- December 26
- December 30
- Ștefan Balaban, Romanian general (d. 1962)
- Sava Caracaș, Romanian general (d. 1945)
- Hatı Çırpan, Turkish politician (d. 1956)
- Ion Codreanu, Romanian general (d. 1960)
- Saadi Al Munla, 17th Prime Minister of Lebanon (d. 1975)
- Lydia Zvereva, first Russian woman to earn a pilot's license (d. 1916)
- January 2 – Julián Gayarre, Spanish opera singer (b. 1844)
- January 7 – Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Empress Consort of William I, German Emperor (b. 1811)
- January 18 – King Amadeo I of Spain (b. 1845)
- February 18 – Gyula Andrássy, Hungarian statesman, 4th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1823)
- February 22
- January 23 – Emily Jane Pfeiffer, Welsh poet and philanthropist (b. 1827)
- March 3 – Innocenzo da Berzo, Italian Capuchin friar and blessed (b. 1844)
- March 7 – Karl Rudolf Friedenthal, Prussian statesman (b. 1827)
- March 9 – Sir Mangaldas Nathubhoy, Indian politician (b. 1832)
- March 16 – Princess Zorka of Montenegro (b. 1864)
- March 23 – Mary Jane Katzmann, Canadian historian (b. 1828)
- April 1
- April 11
- April 19 – James Pollock, American politician (b. 1810)
- May 22 – Eduard von Fransecky, Prussian general (b. 1807)
- June 24 – Subba Row, Hindu theosophist (b. 1856)
- June 30 – Samuel Parkman Tuckerman, American composer (b. 1819)
- July 7 – Henri Nestlé, Swiss confectioner and the founder of Nestlé (b. 1814)
- July 9 – Clinton B. Fisk, American philanthropist and temperance activist (b. 1828)
- July 13
- July 15 – Gottfried Keller, Swiss writer (b. 1819)
- July 25 – Shaikh Mohamed bin Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa, Ruler of Bahrain (b.1813)
- July 29 – Vincent van Gogh, Dutch painter (b. 1853)
- August 6 – William Kemmler, American murderer, first person executed in the electric chair (b. 1860)
- August 10 – John Boyle O'Reilly, Irish-born poet, journalist and fiction writer (b. 1844)
- August 11 – John Henry Newman, English Roman Catholic Cardinal (b. 1801)
- August 27 – Juan Seguín, American soldier and politician (b. 1806)
- October 4 – Catherine Booth, Mother of The Salvation Army (b. 1829)
- October 17 – Julian Gutowski, Polish politician (b. 1823)
- October 20 – Richard Francis Burton, English explorer, linguist, soldier (b. 1820)
- October 26 – Carlo Collodi, Italian writer (The Adventures of Pinocchio) (b. 1826)
- November 3 – Ulrich Ochsenbein, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1811)
- November 4 – Félix du Temple de la Croix, French Army Captain & aviation pioneer (b. 1823)
- November 7 – Comanche, American horse, survivor of Custer's cavalry at the Battle of the Little Bighorn
- November 8 – César Franck, Belgian composer and organist (b. 1822)
- November 11 – Marie-Charles David de Mayréna, French adventurer and self-styled King of Sedang (b. 1842)
- November 23 – King William III of the Netherlands (b. 1817)
- November 24 – August Belmont, Sr., Prussian-born financier (b. 1816)
- December 15 – Sitting Bull, Native American chief (b. c. 1831)
- December 21 – Johanne Luise Heiberg, Danish actress (b. 1812)
- December 23 – Alphonse Lecointe, French general and politician (b. 1817)
- December 26 – Heinrich Schliemann, German December 29 big foot archaeologist (b. 1822)
- December 31 – Pancha Carrasco, Costa Rican war heroine (b. 1826)
- "Full List of Thunder Bay Region Shipwrecks (by name)". MSU Sea Grant Extension, Northeast District, Michigan State University. 2000. Archived from the original on October 15, 2009. Retrieved December 25, 2006.
- "Many Great Liners Paid Toll Of The Sea; Republic Was First to Utilize the Wireless in Calls for Aid" (PDF). The New York Times. April 16, 1912. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
- "This Day in History: 1890". History.com. A&E Television Networks. Archived from the original on February 9, 2010. Retrieved October 27, 2009.
- "A Steamer and 400 Lives Lost". Otago Times. January 17, 1890. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- The South African Railways - Historical Survey. Editor George Hart, Publisher Bill Hart, Sponsored by Dorbyl Ltd., Published c. 1978.
- Statement Showing, in Chronological Order, the Date of Opening and the Mileage of Each Section of Railway, Statement No. 19, p. 182, ref. no. 200954-13
- "Asuka Area, Nara". Iwate University. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- Hermann, Christoph: Capitalism and the Political Economy of Work Time, p. 113
- "Dixon, George (Little Chocolate)". Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. University of Toronto; Université Laval. 2000. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 317–318. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- The Daily News (London). "lime, n2". Oxford English Dictionary online version. Oxford University Press. September 2011. Retrieved November 15, 2011. (subscription or participating institution membership required)
- "History of UNT | 125th Anniversary". 125.unt.edu (in English). Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Crouch, Tom D. "Clément Ader". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 3, 2011.
- Gray, Carroll (1998–2003). "Clement Ader 1841–1925". Flying Machines. Retrieved March 3, 2011.
- Gibbs-Smith, Charles H. (1959). "Hops and Flights: A Roll Call of Early Powered Take-offs". Flight. 75: 468. Retrieved March 3, 2011.
- "Read And Others V. The Lord Bishop Of Lincoln: Court Of The Archbishop Of Canterbury, Lambeth Palace, Nov. 21". The Times (33176). London. November 22, 1890. p. 4.
- Two Hundred Drowned - Panic among the Chinese on the burned steamer Shanghai.
- Galton, Francis (1891). "The Patterns in Thumb and Finger Marks – On Their Arrangement into Naturally Distinct Classes, the Permanence of the Papillary Ridges that Make Them, and the Resemblance of Their Classes to Ordinary Genera". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 182: 1–23. doi:10.1098/rstb.1891.0001. JSTOR 91733.
- "Eighteen Years in Uganda and East Africa". World Digital Library. 1908. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- "ONU Marching Band".
- "Emilio Portes Gil" (in Spanish). Busca Biografias. Retrieved May 31, 2019.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
Further reading and year books
- 1890 Annual Cyclopedia online; highly detailed coverage of "Political, Military, and Ecclesiastical Affairs; Public Documents; Biography, Statistics, Commerce, Finance, Literature, Science, Agriculture, and Mechanical Industry" (1891); compilation of facts and primary documents; worldwide coverage.